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Выбрана работа: The creation of the computer

The creation of the computer.
The history of computing covers 160 years. The early years from 1830 – 1950 were considered its infancy. The last 40 years have seen the acceptance of the computer in the business world by corporations. In the last 10 years the personal computer has been accepted by individuals.
Charles Babbage invented the difference engine and the analytical engine. The difference engine was used in finding errors in handwritten tables. The analytical engine was designed for mathematical computations. This machine five features found in today’s computers. These five features are:
1. An input device;
2. A storage place;
3. A processor used for calculations;
4. A control unit used to direct tasks;
5. An output device.
The Countess of Lovelace, Augusta Ada Byron was the first programmer. Herman Hollerith’s tabulation machine allowed the 1890 census unofficial counts to be anence between Hollerith’s machine and earlier machine was its use of electricity. The Hollerith code was used in punched cards. This coding structure is rarely used today. IBM was formed through the merger of three companies, one being Hollerith’s Tabulating Machine Company.
Thomas J. Watson, Sr. was the father of IBM and was noted for his iron – fisted ruling of the company. Watson built a sales and marketing force that dominated the business machine market. Ye lead the company into computers in 1936 by give $1,000,000 to Howard Aiken. Aiken read Lady Lovelaces notes and felt a modern day machine could be built resembling the analytical machine.
Howard Aiken developed the Mark I and unveiled it in 1944. the size of the computer was impressive an 8 feet and 55 freer long. IBM presented the new computer with massive publicity infact, the machine did very little more than military computations.
ENIAC was created based upon the Atanasoff – Berry Computer (ABC) principals. ENIAC was first general purpose computer to use secondary storage and the stored program. This machine was the base for the UNIVACI.
The Universal Automatic Computer (UNIVACI) was the first commercially sold computer. The U.S. Census purchased it in June of 1951. the vacuum tube was used as the primary computer component during the first generation of computers. Punched cards and magnetic tape were used for secondary storage. The major problem with these early computers was the enormous amount of heat from the vacuum tubes.
The second generation computers were significantly improved with the transistor. During this generation, assembly languages, or symbolic languages replaced the machine language. FORTRAN (short for FORmula TRANslator), the first high – level language, was developed in 1954 for mathematical computations. COBOL (short for Common Business Oriented Language) was introduced in 1959 for business applications. Both languages with significant revisions are in use today.
The integrated circuit (IC) replaced the transistors in the third generation computers. The small silicon chip (approx. 1/8 inch) held thousands of transistors. The semiconductor chip is made of a crystalline substance that conducts electricity. In 1970 large scale integration (LSI)* compressed thousands of integrated circuits into an inch piece of silicon.
The third generation of computers was dominated the IBM 360 family of computers. These machine were designed to do both business and scientific work. Sophisticated software called operating systems allowed mare than one program to run simultaneously. Interactive processing allowed the use of Cathode – Ray Tubes CRT** for input and output. This was the beginning of online computer reservations and credit checks.
The fourth generations introduce the microprocessor in a chip. The microprocessor is a computer on a chip (about the size of an ant). Very large scale integration (VLSI***) introduced in 1975 revolutionized the microprocessor industry. This achievement allowed small computers to be placed in watches, microwave ovens, cars and television sets. Today, computers are about 1/100 the size of first generation computers. The microprocessor chip is much faster than ENIAC.
The fifth generation will be introduce in the mid 1990s. The Japanese have set a goal to be the industry leader in 10 years. New areas under development in this generation include artificial intelligence, expert systems and natural languages. Artificial intelligence simulates intelligence, imagination and intuition. Expert system allow the computer to be the expert on a given subject and provide consulting capabilities. Natural languages refer to our every day language. Computers of the future will use natural language.
The first microcomputer was built in 1975 by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak in a garage. MITS Altair did not have a keyboard or screen, only switches and dials. This humble beginning lead to the forming of forming of Apple Computer in 1977. it was an instant success. Others followed, with Tandy/Radio Shack introducing the TRC – 80 with projected sales of 5000 units a year. The units were sold in 30 days. Atari and Commodore enjoyed success in the late 1970s.
IBM joined the microprocessor market in the summer of 1971. within 18months IBM had captured the lead from Apple. IBM built an expandable machine, one that could grow with the User as their needs grew. The industry responder by introducing IBM clones or look – alikes. The clones were compatible with the IBM PC. Since that time many models have been introduced with increasing speeds and capacities.
Software has evolved over the last 40 years. Early programs were a crude set of instructions to perform simple mathematical calculations, these programs were batch.
Interactive programs or online programs improved the efficiencies of many companies. Versatility and flexibility in software created user friendly software. Today sophisticated software is made up of hundreds of thousands of instructions.

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